First, the content material summary:
To check the understanding of the candidates with the types of risk elements and mechanical intrinsic security requirements of major devices and areas during the manufacture and usage of machinery.
Second, the crucial points, challenging factors:
(1) Understand the primary groups of mechanical products;
(2) Understand the inbuilt safety requirements of mechanical style and the type of safety gadget of the machine;
(3) Familiar with the boiler room, air compressor station, gas station, air train station, acetylene station dangerous point and general safety technology administration requirements.
Third, the content points out:
Machinery is a gadget that is assembled by a amount of interconnected components and can perform certain functions. During the procedure of the mechanical devices, at least some of the relatives actions are produced relating to particular guidelines. The complete mechanical gadget includes a leading mover, a control and control program, a transmitting system, a support device and an actuator.
Equipment is an essential apparatus in contemporary creation and life. While getting high performance, quickness and convenience to people, the machine also brings mechanical harm such as influence, extrusion, slicing and additional nonmechanical hazards such as electrical surprise, noise and high temperatures during its produce, procedure and use.
The task of mechanical safety is to take system measures to ensure the safety and health of employees in the whole process of production and usage of machinery, from various unsafe factors. Mechanical basic safety includes two factors of the security of mechanical product developing and the protection of mechanical tools.
1.1, mechanical item manufacturing safety
(1) Main classes of mechanical products
There are many types of mechanical products. The primary items of the machinery market are as comes after:
(1) Agricultural machinery: tractors, internal combustion engines, planters, harvesting equipment, etc.
(2) Weighty mining machinery: metallurgical equipment, mining machinery, lifting machinery, loading and unloading machinery, commercial and mining vehicles, cement devices, etc.
(3) Construction equipment: forklifts, earthmoving machinery, compaction equipment, cement machinery, etc.
(4) Petrochemical general machinery: oil drilling and mining machinery, oil refining machinery, chemical machinery, pumps, fans, valves, gas compressors, refrigeration and air conditioning machinery, paper machinery, printing machinery, plastic material processing machinery, pharmaceutical machinery.
(5) Electrical machinery: power generation machinery, transformers, electrical motors, high and low voltage switches, wire and cable, batteries, electrical welding machines, home devices, etc.
(6) Machine tools: steel cutting machine tools, forging machines, foundry equipment, woodworking machinery, etc.
(7) Autos: trucks, street buses, cars, modified vehicles, motorbikes, etc.
(8) Instrumentation: automatic musical instruments, electrical equipment, optical equipment, component analyzers, motor vehicle instrumentation, electrical equipment, audio-visual products, cameras, etc.
(9) Basic equipment: bearings, hydraulic parts, seals, powder metallurgy items, standard fasteners, industrial chains, armor and weapon upgrades, molds, etc.
(10) Packaging machinery: packaging machinery, metallic packaging items, metallic containers, etc.
(11) Environmental protection machinery: water pollution prevention equipment, air flow pollution prevention equipment, solid waste materials treatment equipment, etc.
(12) Other machinery.
The primary PTO shafts china supplier products of the nonmechanical industry include railway equipment, construction machinery, textile equipment, light commercial equipment, and underwater machinery.
(2) Mechanical safety design and machine safety device
Mechanical safety includes safety at all stages of design, manufacturing, installation, adjustment, use, maintenance, and disassembly. Security design minimizes risk. Mechanical security style refers to the proper shape and relatives position from the part material to the part in the mechanical design stage, from limiting the working force, the quality and quickness of the shifting parts to reducing noise and vibration, using intrinsic protection technology and power source, applying zero The basic principle of pressured mechanical actions between components, combined with ergonomic desk concepts and additional procedures, avoids or decreases the risk by selecting suitable design buildings; it can also improve the dependability, operation mechanization or automation of the products and Steps such as changes and maintenance outside the danger zone to prevent or reduce the risk.
Intrinsically safe
Inbuilt safety is certainly a mechanical safety method that is normally adopted by mechanical designers to take measures to get rid of mechanical hazards during the design phase.
1) Adopting intrinsic protection technology
Intrinsically safe technology refers to the design and manufacture of mechanical predetermined functions simply by using this technology. It can satisfy the security requirements of the machine itself when performing established features of the machine under established circumstances without using various other safety safety measures. These consist of: avoiding razor-sharp edges, razor-sharp corners and bulges; ensuring sufficient basic safety distances; determining limits on physical amounts; using intrinsically safe procedures and power sources.
2) Limit mechanical stress
The mechanical stress of the mechanical parts does not exceed the permissible value and a enough safety factor is guaranteed.
3) Security of components and materials
Components, fuels, and components used to produce equipment need to not endanger the protection or wellness of employees during make use of. The mechanical properties of the material, such as tensile strength, shear power, influence toughness, produce limit, etc., should meet the fill requirements for performing the meant function; the materials should become able to withstand the established environmental circumstances, such as corrosion resistance, maturing resistance, and resistance. The ability to wear; the materials should possess uniformity, prevent the metallographic structure of the material from being uneven credited to unreasonable process style, and generate residual tension; at the same period, avoid using harmful materials or chemicals, and should prevent the equipment itself or credited to make use of. The risk of open fire and explosion from gas, fluids, dust, vapors or various other substances created by specific components.
4) Fulfilling protection ergonomic principles
In the mechanical design, the safety man-machine design theory is fulfilled by rationally distributing human-machine functions, adapting to human body characteristics, man-machine interface design, function space design, etc., enhancing the operability and reliability of mechanical apparatus, and producing the operator’s physical power Consumption and emotional tension are reduced, therefore reducing functional errors.
5) Protection concepts for designing control systems
During the use of equipment, the normal dangerous conditions are: unintended begin, out of control of rate change, motion can not really quit, moving mechanical parts or workpieces fall off, the function of protection products is normally clogged. The design of the control program should consider into accounts the operating settings of the several operations or the utilization of problem display gadgets so that the operator can handle them safely.
6) Prevent the problems of pneumatic and hydraulic systems
Devices that make use of pneumatic, hydraulic, thermal, and other gadgets have to be designed to avoid the potential hazards associated with accidental discharge of these energies.